Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is the capital and largest city. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for 20 kilometers (12 miles) of coastline on the Adriatic Sea surrounding the city of Neum.

In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland.

The inland is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, bookended by hot summers and cold and snowy winters.

The southern tip of the country has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography.


  • Sarajevo, the “Olympic City” or “European Jerusalem”; the scientific, cultural, tourist and commercial center of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  • Shrine of Our Lady of Međugorje, with Annual Youth Festival; the site of a Marian apparition and subsequent Catholic pilgrimage destination.
  • Mostar, the “City on Neretva” or “City of Sunshine”; the location of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Stari most and old-town Mostar.
  • Višegrad, location of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of the Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge.
  • Banja Luka, the “Green City”, with sights such as the Kastel fortress and Ferhadija mosque.
  • Bihać and the waterfalls of the river Una within Una National Park.
  • Jajce, city of the Bosnian kings and the place where Yugoslavia was founded, Pliva lakes and waterfall.
  • Prijedor, featuring its Old City Mosque, Kozara National Park and, at Mrakovica, Bosnia’s largest World War II monument.
  • The salt-lakes of Tuzla, birthplace of Meša Selimović.
  • The Neretva river and the Rakitnica river canyons in Upper Neretva.
  • The Trebižat river and its waterfalls at Kravice and Kočuša.
  • The Buna with its spring and historic town of Blagaj.
  • The Lower Tara river canyon, the deepest canyon in Europe.
  • Sutjeska National Park, featuring the ancient forest of Perućica (one of the last two remaining primeval forests in Europe) and the Sutjeska river canyon.
  • Počitelj historical village.
  • Mount Bjelašnica and Jahorina, sites used during XIV Olympic Winter Games in 1984.
  • The coastal city of Neum.
  • Doboj and its 13th-century fortress.
  • Stolac, featuring the Begovina neighborhood and Radimlja tombstones.
  • Visoko, city of the Bosnian nobility and monarchy, historical capital of the Kingdom of Bosnia and the site of the alleged Bosnian pyramids;
  • Tešanj, one of Bosnia’s oldest known cities.
  • Bijeljina, known for its agriculture and ethnic village Stanišić.
  • Lukavac, featuring Modrac Lake, the largest artificial lake in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  • Travnik, the birthplace of Ivo Andrić and once the capital city of the Bosnia Eyalet.
  • Jablanica, Museum of Battle of Neretva and Old bridge destroyed by Yugoslav army in Second World War.
  • Ostrožac Castle, a 16th-century castle built by the Ottoman Empire and later expanded by the House of Habsburg.
  • Konjic, featuring Tito’s underground nuclear bunker.